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A century and a half ago, a band of earnest men 
From old Bethabara came forth, to this sequestered glen. 
They 'd left their homes across the seas, a virgin soil to find, 
A place where they could worship God, according to their 

A fuller freedom still they craved — a wider field to scan, 
Where they could think, and toil, "and strive, and work 

out every plan. 
So to Bethania they came, beloved home of peace ! 
To raise their sacred altars, in a howling wilderness. 
Their voices rose in prayer and praise, through leafy 

woodland aisles, 
While savage bears and panthers, were prowling through 

the wilds. 
And Indians, more relentless, and cruel, still, than these 
Were stealing^tj.irQii^'h the forests, peering through quiver- 
ing leaves. 

They wrought in faith and patience, felling the grand old 

trees, m 

While rearing homes, they slowly changed wild woods to 

fertile fields. 
Day by day they toiled, though saddened, without haste 

and without rest, 
While dark Pestilence was preying, on their choicest and 

their best. 
While its sable banners mqcked them, with sorely aching 

Brave, heroic, calm, and earnest, they simply did their 

Anchored on the Rock of Ages, by a strong and living 



The Eternal God their Refuge, they were faithful unto 

Leaning, with a steadfast patience, on the strong, Al- 
mighty arm, 
Which has never failed nor faltered, as the ages still 

roll on. 
The first home that thus they builded, stood just below 

us, — near: — 
The great, great grandson of the owners, the beloved 

pastor here, 
In this Sesqui-Centennial, he stands on Zion's walls, 
A watchman, brave and fearless, as day by day he calls : 
"What of the night, my brothers? How g:oes the fight 

with you? 
Are you standing by your colors? Do you keep the goal 

in view? 

When 50 years had glided, like shadows o'er the plain, 
These strong; church walls rose 'round them which today 

are still the same. 
And may they long bear witness to the true and patient 

Of the fathers who have built them, and now rest on 

yonder hill! 
When success had crowned their efforts, when homes and 

church spire rose, 
One by one, they gently laid them, down to a long repose. 
Left their dwellings in the valley, for the village on the 

Where they rest from all their labors, and their works do 

follow still, 
Where the ancient cedars darkle, and the periwinkles 

Twining, lovingly about them, in their silent dreamless 

Done with all their early struggles, knowing nothing of 

our fears, 


How they rest, these early fathers, through a hundred 

rolling years ! 
How they pass, these drifting ages! Bearing us upon 

their tide, 
But the same Almighty Pilot is still their children's 

Methinks I hear them softly, when the evening glories 

And the golden bars of sunset, along the horizon fall. 
Down, down along the ages, floating their accents true, 
To their children's children calling, to them, to me, to you, 
Fearing lest we should fail them, in the stirring lust for 

gold, — 
Lest we forget the teachings, of the brave days of old, 
Methinks we hear their warnings, lest we neglect the truth, 
And spend for naught the vigor, and the freshness of our 


Mid the glories of the homeland, we shall greet them by 

and by: 
In the uncreated brightness of the Father's House on high, 
There, in the white domed mansions of an Eternal Peace, 
We shall see and know our loved ones, after earth's con- 
flicts cease, 
0, the beauty of that country, has never yet been told, 
Not the faintest whispers reach us, from that land where 

none, grow old. 
Earth's accents are too feeble, to utter all their joy, 
Our mortal tongues too stammering, for songs without 

But the glad day dawns for us too, whose sun shall ne'er 

go down, 
On the green banks of Life's River, w T e shall know, as 

we are known, 
There, with the saints and angels, in harmony to meet 
To spend eternal ages, at our Redeemer's feet. 




mark 1795. With his wife (m. n. Schnall) he be- 
gan his pastorate at Bethania 1820. In 1834 
he took charge of Salem Female Academy, and 
about ten years later became Principal of Naz- 
areth School, Pa. In 1849 ne was called to 
Bethlehem, Pa., where he served as a member 
of the Provincial Elders' Conference. He was 
ordained Bishop in 1854. He died in 1870. His 
son, Rev. H. A. Jacobson, is Office Editor of 
"The Moravian," published in the Northern 

Denmark 1805. He was educated in Germany. 
In 1829 he emigrated to the United States and 
five years later began his ministerial career. The 
two congregations in which he labored longest 
and with most success were Lancaster, Pa., and 
Salem, N. C. He was pastor at Bethania from 
1834 to 1838. He was consecrated Bishop in 
i860. He died a few weeks after his return 
from General Synod in Germany, which was held 
in 1869. One of his sons, Rev. George F. Bahn- 
son, is pastor at Schoeneck, Pa. 

missionary parents in Salem, N. C, 181 5. He 


studied at Bethlehem and Nazareth, Pa. He 
was pastor at Bethanra from 1844 to 185 1. 
Friedberg was a later charge. After his return 
to the Northern Province he did pastoral work 
and for several years was a member of P. E. C. 
His literary activity appeared in his book, ''Old 
Landmarks." He was a musician of ability. 
''Morning Star," composed by him, is one of 
our familiar Christmas songs. He died in 1907 
in Lititz, Pa., where he spent his last days under 
the care of his son, Rev. Ernest S. Hagen, who 
is pastor at that place. 

in Niesky, Germany, 1826. He was trained in 
our best German schools. He came to the Uni- 
ted States as a young man. In 1851 he became 
pastor at Bethania. After having served as 
teacher and assistant principal of Salem Female 
Academy, he became principal. He was con- 
nected with this institution twenty years. Leav- 
ing Salem he became pastor at Emmaus, Pa., 
and then professor in the Theological Seminary. 
He died in 1887. His son, Rev. F. E. Grunert, 
is pastor of New Dorp congregation, Staten 
Island, New York. 

in the West Indies, where his parents were mis- 
sionaries. At the age of seven he was sent to 
Nazareth Hall, Pa. He worked at the cabinet- 
maker's trade. He served three years as mis- 
sionary to slaves at Woodstock Mills, Fla. La- 


ter he had charge of New Philadelphia congre- 
gation near Salem. He was the first resident 
pastor at Mt. Bethel. His pastorate in Bethania 
dates from 1857 to 1865. He died in Illinois, 
1867. He was a man of strong convictions, 
cheerful in disposition, enthusiastic in his work, 
and consecrated to the service of the Master. 

CHRISTIAN LEWIS RIGHTS, was born near Sa- 
lem 1820. He began his ministerial labors as the 
home missionary in the Mt. Bethel region, Va. 
In 1854 he was called to Friedberg. In 1865 he 
came to Bethania. His last important charge 
was Kernersville. Other congregations served 
by him were Friedland, Macedonia, Bethabara, 
Oak Grove, and Providence. He died in 1891 
while on a visit to the Indian Territory. He 
was the pioneer in revival work in the Southern 
Province. Great meetings held by him in 
Bethania and other congregations are still bear- 
ing fruit. 

EUGENE P. GREIDER was born in Pennsylvania 
1825. He served as missionary in the West In- 
dies. He served in the Northern Province at 
Hope, Ind., Graceham, Md., Egg Harbor, N. J., 
and Lebanon, Pa. His service in the Southern 
Province began in 1873 as pastor in Bethania, 
where he continued to reside several years after 
his retirement. He was noted for his system- 
atic work. His last years were spent in Leba- 
non, Pa., where he died in 1904. Two sons en- 


tered the ministry — Rev. Paul M. Greider, pas- 
tor in Brooklyn, N. Y., and Rt. Rev. Edwin C. 
Greider in the West Indies. 

Salem 1831. He studied at Bethlehem and Naz- 
areth, Pa. He followed teaching in Nazareth 
Hall and the Boys' School in Salem. Friedland 
and Macedonia were two of his earlier pastoral 
charges. Friedberg was a larger field for him. 
In 1877 he became pastor at Bethania, where he 
completed his life work. After his retirement 
from active service he remained in Bethania till 
his death in 1892. He served a number of years 
in the P. E. C. In the time of his Bethania pas- 
torate he attended for a while to the Mt. Bethel 

EDWARD S. CROSLAND is the only surviving 
minister who served in Bethania before the pres- 
ent pastorate. Leaving the Theological Semi- 
nary in Bethlehem, Pa., for active service, he 
came in 1892 to Bethania as his first charge from 
which he removed in 1901 to Calvary, Winston, 
which he still holds. Alpha Chapel and Mizpah 
Chapel stand as monuments of his zeal for the 
growth of Bethania congregation. 

WALTER GRABS the present pastor formerly 
had charged Friedland, Macedonia, and Oak 
Grove, but gave these up in 1901 to take charge 
at Bethania. He serves also at Providence, Mt. 
Bethel, and Willow Hill. 


1 1 

fl^gg^Su^ 11 




Compiled by his neice, Mrs. Erastus B. Jones, from Pio- 
neer History of Montana and from various articles that 
have from time to time appeared concerning his life. 


SER, of Helena, 
Montana, the subject of 
* this sketch, is the great- 
^ , great grandson of Martin 

Hauser, who with the Mo- 
r , ravian Brethren came to 
W^m/^i America from Switzer- 
^%4Hh)fl Br land in 1753, and who is 

K Jk ? spoken of in the history 

^■■k^H ^r "Moravians in North Car- 

;h.W^ olina" as 'neighbor and 

friend'; the great grandson of George the First, the 
son who came over with his father, and whose pa- 
triotism was so pronounced that when Cornwallis' 
army was in possession of Hausertown (Bethania), he 
was seized and carried to the mess room, the sol- 
diers trying to force him to drink to the health of 
their King. Though a German, he was quick-witted 
enough to fall back upon the broken English which 
was largely spoken in those early days among these 
German colonists, and raising the glass, said, "To 
the hell with your King!" which seemed sufficiently 
satisfactory for the soldiers to allow him to go ; the 


grandson of George The Second who served in the 
Revolutionary war. 

In the summer of 1818 Samuel Thomas Hauser, 
father of the subject of this sketch, a youth of 24 
years, having graduated from Chapel Hill in 181 7, 
mounted his horse at his father's (George Hauser's) 
doorstep and rode out of Bethania into the West, out 
of the village oft-times called by his own name, out 
of that Moravian settlement into the unknown world 
towards the setting sun, not certain in which direction 
his course would carry him, as a double motive im- 
pelled him — the desire to get beyond the horizon of 
his youth and to overtake, if possible, a man who had 
left town owing his father quite a sum of money. 
Always keeping a little ahead — the fugitive lured 
him on as far as Kentucky, young Hauser losing trace 
of him near the pretty little town of Falmouth, Ky. 
Here waiting to be ferried across the Licking river, 
he looked upon the town situated in a beautiful valley 
like an amphitheatre surrounded on all sides by green 
hills, and here he concluded to rest from his long 
journey and reconnoiter. His attractive personality 
and marked intelligence immediately won friends for 
him. Here he decided to remain, first teaching 
school until he could establish himself in his chosen 
profession of law, for which he had been prepared at 
Chapel Hill. He became one of the noted lawyers 
of Northern Kentucky, and in the days of the old 
Commonwealth when the Judiciary was appointed, 
he was made Judge. It has always been said that 
he became so much interested in a young lady, Mary 
Ann Kennett, whom he met when he first reached 
Falmouth, that he tarried on her account, and on her 
account remained. In 1822 they were married. 
They reared a family of seven children. 

We can but note an instance of his Southern 


chivalry — he named all four of his daughters for his 
wife, using different combinations of her three 
names — Alary Ann Kennett. During the course of 
years Judge Hauser came back to Bethania three 
times, making the trip as he had first done, on horse- 
back. His letters written on these visits of the 
"little world to itself" as he describes his birthplace, 
are most interesting. Greatly did he desire to bring 
one of his children back with him, but fearing such 
a long trip on horseback would be too fatiguing the 
plan each time was abandoned. One of these chil- 
dren, the son bearing his father's name, Samuel 
Thomas, was born in Falmouth, Kentucky, in 1834. 
From early childhood he manifested a most pro- 
nounced personality, a forceful direct nature, inde- 
pendent, cheerful, brave, always somewhat chary of 
speech, he has proven a man of actions rather than 
of words. An incident from his boyhood marks these 
traits. Returning from an errand on which he had 
been sent on horseback he appeared swinging his 
bridle nonchalantly with the announcement to his 
mother, "Blackhawk's dead!" "What?" she asked in 
astonishment, "Blackhawk's dead!" was the startling 
reply. Only from an eye-witness, a negro servant, 
could the story be learned of the narrow escape from 
death he had just passed through, of the alertness 
and presence of mind he had displayed when the 
beautiful and valuable black animal he was riding 
had stumbled over a precipice throwing the small 
boy off and breaking her own neck. 

When a young man he studied civil engineering 
and was engaged in this kind of work in building 
the Kentucky Central Railroad running from Cov- 
ington, Kentucky to Lexington, Kentucky. But, 
turning his face westward as his own father had done 
more than forty years before, so Samuel Thomas, 


Jr., in i860 went to Missouri as a civil engineer. 
After a period of successful railroad construction in 
Missouri he joined an exploring party going up the 
Missouri river to the head of navigation, arriving at 
Fort Benton, Montana, in 1862 in the first side-wheel 
steamboat that ever reached that point, being only 
the second boat that had ev^r made the trip. The 
letters he wrote to his sister, Mrs. J. H. Barbour, of 
Faulmouth, Kentucky, on this trip have become part 
of the Montana pioneer history. During these 
stirring days of adventure and skirmishes with In- 
dians he kept a Journal which he carried in his breast 
pocket, and which saved his life. At one time a bul- 
let from an Indian rifle struck this little book and 
was imbedded in it. 

"The year after his arrival in Fort Benton, Mon- 
tana, he became a member of the historic Yellow- 
stone Expedition of 1863, which resulted in exploit- 
ing to the world the inherent wealth and possibil- 
ities of a region that from the first has been a glory 
and an inspiration to Montana. That bold, cruel, 
splendid story of that expedition marks the first con- 
crete epoch in the development of Montana. Gov- 
ernor Hauser with his characteristic sprightliness 
and quick wit named the geysers in Yellowstone 
Park according to some striking feature that each 
displayed. The courage, the self-sacrifice, the pa- 
tience, the loyalty, the daring and the magnanimity 
displayed by the members of this expedition are part 
of the history and the foundation of the Common- 
wealth of Montana. Some perished of battle wounds 
and others slew themselves rather than become a 
burden to the explorers. Hauser in that, as in later 
enterprises, was an inspiration to his associates. With 
the tenacity of his indomitable spirit he surmounted 
all difficulties and emerged from the ordeal the halest 


and most virile of his associates." For more than 
forty-five years he has been an active potential fac- 
tor in the affairs of Montana. Since the commence- 
ment of his business career in 1863 he inspired the 
building of the Northern Pacific Railroad, has dom- 
inated the establishment and completion of eight 
branches of railroad, four national banks. In 1864 
he organized the first smelter company of the terri- 
tory. In 1865 he built the first silver mill at Phillips- 
burg, freighting the construction material from 
California at a cost of thirty cents per pound. Other 
smelters, the opening of coal mines, silver mines, the 
first coke plant were all conceived and accomplished 
by Governor Hauser. "A rosary of notable perform- 
ances." Governor Toole, of Montana, once said of 
him, "Instinct with the American ambition to ac- 
complish great results without unnecessary delay, 
there has always been enough of the philosophy of 
the sturdy German in his composition not to nego- 
tiate without caution, or conclude without delibera- 
tion ; enough of the abandon and penchant of the 
Frenchman for amusement and pleasure to furnish 
that relaxation which stimulates, invigorates and for- 

In 1872 he married Ellen Farrar Kennett of St. 
Louis, Missouri, a woman of rare personal charm 
and of most distinguished ancestry. In 1885 Samuel 
Thomas Hauser was appointed Governor of Montana 
by President Cleveland. In 1887 he resigned, realiz- 
ing that his large business interests left him too lit- 
tle time for the office of Chief Executive, and one 
suspects he felt the restraint to his free spirit in be- 
ing obliged to ask permission to leave home when- 
ever he saw fit to go. It is said that he sometimes 
forgot to telegraph Mr. Cleveland for leave of ab- 
sence until he was well on his journey traveling as 


fast as a Limited Express could carry him, and the 
story goes that on one such occasion in Washington 
Mr. Cleveland clasped him cordially by the hand say- 
ing, "Hello, what are you doing here, Hauser?" They 
were friends and well understood each other. No 
man better knew the resources and needs of his 
State, and no man had such abounding faith in their 
development, and the catalogue of his titanic achieve- 
ments is the best index of his standing as an organiz- 
er and financier and to his value as a citizen of his 
adopted territory, state and city. But the chief work 
of his life is just now nearing completion. The 
crowning triumph of his career is the construction 
of a series of dams in the Missouri river by which the 
water is stored in reservoirs for a distance of sixty 
miles and which will furnish an everlasting source of 
power for manufacture, for treatment of ore, for the 
pumping of water in inexhaustible quantities for 
light and for transportation, furnishing several other 
towns as well as the city of Helena, and which will 
result in the irrigation of the most important valley 
in Montana. To quote from a recent issue of a 
Montana paper: "In developing Montana's 'White 
Coal' as water power is designated by the French, 
Governor S. T. Hauser and his associates have taken 
the initiative in a great movement which, in time, will 
revolutionize manufacturing industries not only in 
Montana but throughout the entire world." 

Samuel T. Hauser is an old man in deeds and in 
years, but his spirit is as young as ever and his 
mind and eye are clear and alert. The vicissitudes 
of half a century of work, adventure, disappoint- 
ment, battle and success have not dimmed his facul- 
ties nor soured his heart. He has made and lost for- 
tunes, but in the reckoning of his accounts with men 


and communities it will be found that he achieved 
more for others than for himself. 

Ever westward has been the course of this line of 
North Carolina's sons. In 1818 it was a long way 
from Bethania to Kentucky, then the frontier, on 
horseback. In i860 it was a brave heart that under- 
took to reach the ever moving westward frontier, 
Montana by whatsoever available means. 

(From Helena Independent, August 23, 1908.) 

"In honor of Montana's 'grand old man,' who, with- 
out question, has done more than any other one man 
for the advancement of the State, development of its 
unlimited possibilities and the conservation of its nat- 
ural resources, Governor Samuel T. Hauser, a ban- 
quet was given at the Montana Club, Saturday even- 
ing, August 22, which was attended by one hundred 
of the most representative men of the city and state. 
The banquet was a continuous pean of praise and 
spontaneous outburst of appreciation for Governor 
Hauser and his efforts toward the general upbuilding 
of the commonwealth. The speakers of the evening 
were chosen from among the ranks of Montana's 
greatest men, and each and every one paid tribute 
to Montana's greatest captain of industry, former 
chief executive, pioneer trail blazer, eminent financier, 
distinguished citizen and one of the choice and mas- 
ter spirits of the age, the honored guest of the even- 

From one of the speeches we quote the following: 
"The sources of the events here culminated are to be 
found in years long past. The results to flow from 
the events are as far extending as human imagina- 
tion can picture. From the sunny banks of the Lick- 
ing river where it breaks through the rugged hills 
into the great Ohio basin, to the canons of the Rocky 
Mountains, where sweeps the mighty Missouri 


through its granite barriers, is a long day's journey. 
But longer still is the distance between the peaceful, 
yet restless boyhood of our friend, and the busy, 
nerve-racking events of the last few years. To have 
lived long is a reward not given to all — to have 
achieved success in a single field of activity is ambi- 
tion enough for most of us. What then shall we say 
of him in whose honor we have met, who has lived 
through the years of storm and stress incident to the 
upbuilding of our western commonwealths, who was 
a pioneer in railroad engineering and assisted in 
locating and building the lines of railway along which 
western civilization was to develop and its commerce 
to flow ; who on arriving in our Montana land, at once 
took hold of the development of the mining industry 
in all of its varied forms, placer and quartz mining, 
coal mining, mills and smelters, and yet time to as- 
sist and encourage the growth of every other indus- 
try and line of commercial activity, and who now, 
as the crowning achievement of his mature years, 
has harnessed the mountain torrents and forced them 
to do the work of man in digging the gold, silver and 
copper from the hills and converting them into arti- 
cles of usefulness and beauty ; forced them to light 
our houses, streets and highways with glorious 
brilliancy of sunlight ; forced them to transport us 
safely and swiftly wherever we want to go, and last- 
ly is forcing them into watering the parched lands, to 
give perennial life and fruitfulness where now are 
cactus and sage brush. These are the works that 
rival in their variety and glory the fabled accom- 
plishments of Alladin. The man who brings about 
this combination, so as to reach with its beneficial 
arms the largest number of people possible, is a 
great public benefactor, one whose efforts will live 
on with increasing usefulness. Our distinguished 


guest is that fortunate mortal, to whom has been 
given the imagination to conceive this great com- 
bination ; the judgment and wisdom to plan his suc- 
cessful bringing about, and last and greatest of all 
the courage and patience to overcome the many dif- 
ficulties that lie in the way of all great and lasting 
work. Yet they are the results produced in the life 
time of a man, who through it all has found time and 
opportunity to be a distinguished public officer, a use- 
ful private citizen, a good neighbor, a genial com- 
panion, a friend to share with us our triumphs and 
successes, and to help us by sympathy and encour- 
agement to bear the reverses and adversities that 
come to all." 









Historical Sketch of the Four Sunday Schools of Be- 

thania Congregation for the Sesqui-Centen- 

nial Celebration* 



N this anniversary occasion we are gathered 
with our Sunday Schools because of the es- 
sential work which has been done by them for 
the congregation. We are celebrating a century and 
a half of the existence of Bethania. It was in the 
beginning of the second half of this period that the 
Sunday School began its work here, which makes 
three quarters of a century of Sunday School activ- 
ity in the home place. As chapels have been added 
one by one until we now have three additional com- 
munities into which the congregation has been ex- 
tended, the Sabbath School has been the principal 
feature at each place for keeping up church-life. 

The following quotation from the old record will 
give the beginning of the Sunday School effort in Be- 

"On this day (Nov. 24, 1833) a number of the in- 
habitants met for the first time for the purpose of 
deliberating on the expediency of establishing a Sun- 
day School at this place. As the number of those 
who, by subscribing the sum preliminarily adopted to 
constitute membership (viz : 25 cents,) declared them- 
selves favorably disposed towards the undertaking 
was rather small, the meeting adjourned to the fol- 
lowing Sunday, in hopes of obtaining more." 


Dec. i. 

"Met according to appointment at one o'clock p. 
m. As the number of subscribers (n) and the prob- 
able number of scholars seemed to warrant the con- 
templated undertaking, a board of officers was form- 
ed p. t., consisting of four members, in order to make 
the requisite arrangements for opening the school 
forthwith on the next Sunday, Dec. 8, though not yet 
fully organized, as the only way of testing the prac- 
ticability of the plan, and, if found to promise suc- 
cess, then to enter upon a proper organization 

Dec. 8. 

"At one p. m., the room, prepared for the Sunday 
School, was well filled with a respectable assemblage. 
Twenty-five children and young persons arranged 
themselves on the seats prepared for the scholars, 
thereby declaring their desire of being entered on 
the list as such. They were immediately divided 
into two classes, the first consisting of such as can 
read at least with some fluency ; they will constitute 
a Bible class ; the second comprehending all those 
who are not yet able to read properly. A sufficient 
number of individuals of both sexes also proffered 
their services as teachers. The school was then 
opened with a hymn, a short prayer and address, 
whereupon the teachers immediately entered upon 
their duties. 

At the close a ticket for attendance was given to 
every scholar, and at three o'clock the first and very 
encouraging attempt of a Sunday School in this 
place was concluded by the singing of a hymn. 

The members and teachers then convened to trans- 
act business." 



J OR a number of years preaching had been held 
in Spanish Grove school house, about five miles 
southwest of Bethania, until a desire arose for a 
church home in that part of the country. 

Between services on New Year's Eve 1876 Bro. 
R. P. Leinbach, the pastor, spoke to two interested 
brethren regarding a chapel in their community. 
They replied that they had been talking over the 
matter. Not long afterward the work began. In the 
early part of the following year the men of the 
neighborhood met somewhere about the place where 
Olivet Chapel now stands to talk about taking steps 
toward erecting a building. The men of the entire 
community were there. Bro. Jonathan Conrad said : 
"Men, I can't do much work, but I will give an acre 
of land for a church." The offer was accepted, and 
the brethren soon got to work. 

In that winter season the willing-hearted men 
took tents and tools and went into the forest about 
three miles west of Lewisville to cut the timber. The 
scene presented after a day's work was an impressive 
one. Supper over, the brethren, in pioneer style, 
sat around the camp fire and talked. Bed-time com- 
ing on, Bro. Leinbach, the pastor, who enjoyed it 
all very heartily, led in the evening devotions while 
they knelt around the fire as an evidence of their 
trust in the Lord, who was with them in their un- 
dertaking. Two such seasons were held, each lasting 
one week, with one week intermission. 

In the first week they had good weather till Sat- 
urday, when it snowed. The day was so cold that 
one of the brethren, when he reached home, could 
not use his hands sufficiently to unhitch his horse bv 


himself. In the second week again they had good 

Then the work of building came on. The brethren 
of that section were assisted by some from Bethania, 
and some money came from Salem. So the work 
went on toward completion ; then the Brethren Tim- 
othy and Joseph Conrad were employed to finish the 
building. In December, 1878, the new building was 
consecrated. Sunday School and preaching have 
been kept up regularly. 

The chapel was repaired and painted in the Sesqui- 
Centennial year of the Province (1903), as a feature 
of commemorating the year. 


~M N later years the work of enlargement began 
31 anew. Bro. F. H. Lash started a Sunday School 
at No. 1 school house two miles northeast of Be- 
thania on the Rural Hall road. This building soon 
becoming unavailable, and steps were taken at once to 
build a chapel. Plans were soon laid, and work was 
begun half a mile further up the road on a plot of 
ground obtained from Mr. Jesse Shouse. The 
chapel was in condition for a Sunday School Christ- 
mas entertainment to be held in it in December, 1894. 

In 1895 the house was dedicated as Alpha Chapel. 

The faithful and efficient superintendent, Bro. 
Lash, was ably assisted by a band of faithful workers 
from Bethania, who went through all kinds of weath- 
er to carry on their labor of love. 

Alpha continues today as a work small in num- 
bers, under the persevering efforts of Bro. E. T. 
Strupe as Sunday School superintendent. The pas- 


tor preaches once a month. A member of the neigh- 
borhood does good service as organist. 



ITH increasing zeal Bro. Lash began a Sunday 
School also at Wolff's school house Mch. 3 1895. 
With considerable inconvenience to himself he con- 
veyed some faithful teachers back and forth ; and in 
this way there grew up a good, large school. Talk 
regarding a chapel soon began. Again, as in the 
case of the building of Alpha Chapel, Bro. Cros- 
land, the pastor, took hold and worked with head 
and heart and hand, in company with other willing 
workers, in building what was to become Mizpah 
Chapel about three miles from Bethania a little off 
from the road going to Mt. Airy. The Sunday 
School moved into the chapel December 29, 1895, 
and a Christmas tree entertainment was held on the 
night of the following day. On Sunday, June 10, 
1896, Bro. Crosland preached his first sermon in the 
new building. 

A protracted meeting began July 18, 1896, which 
led to the reception of thirty-one members on the 
day of consecration, September 13, 1896. 

Bro. L. R. Anderson succeeded Bro. Lash as Sun- 
day School superintendent and was himself follow- 
ed by Bro. A. A. Helsabeck, the present superin- 

Several revival meetings of unusual interest have 
helped to establish Mizpah as a promising field of the 
Bethania congregation. 









'TJT HOSE acquainted with Moravians and Mora- 
le I I vian ways know that their villages are never 
^■^ without the church and school-house, and Be- 
thania is no exception to the rule. 

Of the many who have received their earliest train 
ing in this village, four have chosen teaching as their 
life work. Let it not be said they are without honor 
in their own home and among their own kin. Let 
us accord to them the honor and recognition due 
them and their work. Of these four Miss Lydia 
Stauber has long since passed to her reward. Prof. 
A. I. Butner is resting after a period of work as 
teacher covering more than fifty years. Miss Emma 
A. Lehman and Rev. James B. Jones are still work- 


ing away at their chosen vocation, both carrying 
out the ideals of their youthful training — the com- 
mon heritage of the four — in systematic, thorough 
and consecrated work. 


^jkt N the year 1824 there entered as teacher in Sa- 
Tjl lem Academy a young woman from Bethania, 
^-^ Miss Lydia Stauber. Unlike most young wo- 
men of that day who did not find their lifework as wife 
and mother, she was not content to take her place 
with married brother or sister, and live the uneventful 
routine of country life. Though her life was to be 
spent for others, her call was to a wider sphere of 
influence and usefulness. 

She must have had the independence of the mod- 
ern American woman, for she went to Salem to earn 
her own livelihood with her needle. Sewing and 
teaching were the two occupations then open to wo- 
men who were brave enough to launch out for them- 
selves, at a time when a woman's place was pre-em- 
inently the home. 

While working there, she became imbued with the 
desire to teach, and began to fit herself for her life 
work by studying at night. After due preparation 
she was chosen as teacher in the Academy. For 
more than forty years she taught, gaining in the es- 
teem and confidence of all, as the years passed by, 
occupying at last the position as teacher of the Se- 
lect Class — then the highest in the school. 

In 1876 she resigned on account of the infirmi- 
ties of old age and ill health, spending the rest of 
her days in the quiet seclusion of the Sister's House 
where she died in 1880, after a useful, well-spent life 
full of good work, faithfully done — an honor to her 
sex, her people and her native village. 




MONG the gifts be- 
stowed on man we 
read in Holy Writ of 
the gift of teaching. Miss 
Emma A. Lehman whose 
chosen work is teaching, 
possesses this gift to a re- 
markable degree. When 
quite a child she gave 
promise of being a brilliant 
woman, and has made good 
that promise. She was 
sent to the Academy at the 
age of thirteen and finished the course at sixteen. 
In the August following at the earnest solicitation 
of an old friend, Dr. Beverly Jones, who recognized 
her intelligence and ability, she took charge of a 
public school near Bethania where she taught boys 
almost as old as herself. The wisdom of this selec- 
tion was soon apparent in the way she conducted 
her school. Afterwards she taught at the home of 
her uncle near Pilot Mountain. In 1864 she entered 
the Academy as teacher and from that time until the 
present has taught continuously in the College. 
Since 1878 she has had charge of the Senior Class. 
Easily mastering any branch of study she chose to 
teach, she met with success in various departments 
of college work, but in these last years has devoted 
all her time to English Literature and kindred bran- 

She has done her good work quietly, thoroughly 
and systematically, as becomes her good Moravian 


training, instilling in her pupils the principles of true 
education — not alone the getting of knowledge, but 
the development of the highest type of the true wo- 
man in character and intellect. Conscientious in 
her devotion to her work, she has widened her sphere 
of usefulness, and is now recognized as one of the 
foremost educators in the State. She inspires her 
pupils with the love of the good, the beautiful, the 
true, — greatest incentives to study. She is quick to 
see in each one the different faculties to be devel- 
oped, teaching them to help themselves. The desire 
of a pupil to study and improve herself, meets with 
immediate and helpful response from Miss Lehman. 
She knows her pupils better than they know them- 

Always a good disciplinarian, she commands their 
respect, inspires their confidence and love, and many, 
many are her 'old girls' all over the South who re- 
member with feelings of affection their old teacher, 
and the time spent under her guiding hand. 

In the midst of her busy school life, replete with 
almost endless duties for a conscientious teacher, she 
still finds time for literary work and wields a facile 
and versatile pen, as a little volume of her poems, 
published by the Grafton press of New York in 1904 
will attest. These poems show the love of God and 
nature permeating them, lifting thought to higher 
and better things. They are the ripening of the deep 
spiritual nature of the woman. She has written 
poems for various publications — this little volume 
being selections from them. In 1889 sne spent the 
summer in Europe with a party of N. C. teachers 
and a very interesting sketch of her travels was pub- 
lished on her return. 

She is a fine botanist and discovered a new plant 


which she sent to Albany, N. Y., to the State Bot- 
anist's office. This plant is named for her Mono- 
tropsis Lehmani. May she long live to commune 
with nature and nature's God, and give of the great 
talents with which He has blessed her to her sisters 
all over our land. They in turn will impart this 
knowledge and training to another generation, and 
the influence of this good and brilliant woman will 
be a continuous call to higher and better things in 
the lives of our people. To quote from her beautiful 
poem "The Silent Village," may the Master say to 
her for yet many years 

' ' The time is not yet 

Tis scarcely noon — there are foes to be met — 

Thy work is still to be done 

The evening will brine thee home. ' ' 





BUTNER, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, 
was born in Bethania in 
September, 1822. His first 
teacher was the Rev. J. C. 
Jacobson who was pastor 
in Bethania at that time. 
In 1833 he was sent to the 
Boys' School at Salem and 
four years later to Nazareth 
Hall, Penn., where he com- 
pleted the course at the 
Theological Seminary, then connected with Nazareth 
Hall, graduating with honor before his twentieth 

He began his career as teacher in the Boys' School 
at Salem that fall, teaching there till 1849. For a 
year or more he taught in Yadkin County, also for 
a while in Bethania during the fifties, going to Col- 
umbus County in 1853 where he took charge of 
Whiteville Academy. He came back to his native 
village to live in 1873, where soon after he took up 
the work of teaching, and for thirty years labored 
faithfully in his chosen field. 

He soon built up a first-class school by competent, 
thorough work, his pupils coming from various parts 
of this and other counties without solicitation on his 
part, his good teaching being his only advertisement. 

In later years the public school of the district was 
moved to Bethania, and he had charge of it till 1903, 


when he resigned owing to the physical infirmities 
of advancing years. 

He filled with great efficiency the position of Su- 
perintendent of Public Schools of Forsyth County, 
for a number of years, making one of the best Su- 
perintendents the county ever had. 

All of his pupils as they have grown in years and 
wisdom, realize his great ability as a teacher. In his 
school were pupils of all grades, from children of 
tender years to grown young men and women. He 
had the gift of teaching, knowing how to impart his 
knowledge, and keep his pupils interested in the sub- 
ject under consideration, explaining patiently and 
clearly all knotty questions. He was alike kind and 
impartial to all. 

His curriculum included all branches of study from 
the A-B-C primer to the advanced English course, 
from elementary Arithmetic to higher mathematics, 
besides giving lessons in German and Latin. The 
"blue-back" speller was in daily evidence. Great 
stress was laid upon learning to read well, reading 
being one of the daily classes taught. He instilled 
the love of the good and beautiful in literature, occa- 
sionally reading aloud selections from the Prophets, 
Psalms and Proverbs. The nineteenth Psalm was a 
favorite of his, and how beautifully and with what ex- 
pression and feeling he would read it ! Often he 
would quote from the poets, notably from Burns and 
Byron and memory still recalls among many others, 
these lines from Childe Harold's Pilgrimage — 

" There was a sound of revelry by night 
And Belgium's capital had gathered there 
Her beauty and her chivalry, and bright 
The lamps shone o 'er fair women and brave men ; 
A thousand hearts beat happily" — 


and ours would beat but not happily, when after be- 
ing transported to Belgium's capital where we heard 
the music and dancing and the cannon's roar, we 
came back to the little school room and the lesson, 
having forgotten it meantime. That meant 
coming after in recess until we had mastered it, what- 
ever it was. It meant "line upon line" in memory 
and NOT on paper. 

Pupils who went from his school were thoroughly 
grounded, and well advanced in their studies. Cor- 
poral punishment was so seldom resorted to that it 
gave a touch out of the common (not alone to him 
who was touched) but to all, something out of the 
daily routine, long to be remembered. He maintain- 
ed good discipline and his pupils respected and liked 
him. So thorough was he in his work that pupils 
were required to give any rule they had learned for 
which he might call, also the tables of weights and 
measures. Beginners were taught the four elemen- 
tary rules in arithmetic and made to work and prove 
all examples he gave, before beginning to use the 
arithmetic. Certainly there were no short cuts to 
learning in his school. The multiplication table was 
not considered known unless the pupil could come 
down the ladder backward from twelve, as gracefully 
and glibly as he or she could scale it from one up- 

Although he has passed the four score mark, being 
now eighty-eight years of age, he is still mentally as 
bright and alert as when he dealt out knowledge and 
waged war on ignorance, in' the little white school- 
house on the corner. That has given place to another 
building and is slowly going to decay on a back 
street. The little bell that hung in its belfry and 
wakened the echoes in the encircling hills around Be- 
thania, (though its tones are as clear as the day it 


came in 1763), is now a relic of the past. The 
Teacher (than whom there was not a better in his 
day)., though in years belonging to a past generation, 
is still remarkably active for one of his age and takes 
exercise about the home that would tire many young- 
er men. He is greatly interested in the church and 
church work, in all public questions and current 
events of the day, finding great pleasure in reading 
good magazines and newspapers. He is still fond 
of history and the old Latin classics, reading them 
with thorough enjoyment by the hour. When not 
reading he still keeps busy in many useful ways about 
the home, the old Moravian habits of industry and 
thrift that were a part of his youthful training, still 
clinging to him. The evening of his life is passing 
peacefully in his native village, among those who love 
him and those he loves, like the close of a calm, 
beautiful day. In thinking of his life one is reminded 
of this passage from Job, ''Thou shalt come to thy 
grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in 
in his season." 





T the beginning of 
the Civil War James 
B. Jones, a youth of 
fourteen years, came home 
from Nazareth Hall, Perm., 
where he had been attend- 
ing the Moravian school for 
boys. He continued his 
studies at home for a year 
or two, and later taught 
for a short while, his young- 
er brothers and several 
other children in the neigh- 
borhood. Early in 1864 he enlisted in the army as 
a Junior Reserve in Company A, First N. C. Bat- 
tallion, and was in active service until Lee's surren- 
der at Appomattox Court House, making his way 
home on foot with a number of other soldiers after 
the surrender. 

In the fall of '65 he went to Kentucky where he 
was employed in the cement mill of his uncle, the 
late W. A. Hauser, of Louisville. While here he de- 
termined to attend Kentucky University and pre- 
pare himself for the ministry of the Christian church 
of which he had been a member for several years. 
He graduated in 1873 in the college of the Bible and 
also in the College of Arts, and for sixteen years de- 
voted his time to the ministry, until failing health 
compelled him to go into another branch of church 
work. For more than two years he was financial 
agent of the Board of Missions for the Christian 
church of that state, and was also a member of the 


executive committee of the Board of Trustees of 
Kentucky University. In 189 1 he began teaching 
in Hamilton College, Lexington, Kentucky, a church 
school for girls. In 1896 he was offered the presi- 
dency of Christian Orphan School of Fulton, Mis- 
souri. When he took charge of this school it was 
very much in debt and though he knew nothing of 
this when accepting it, having put his hand to the 
plow he did not turn back. He has had charge of 
the school for fourteen years and in this time the 
patronage and faculty have been doubled, and the 
course extended. Several modern buildings have 
been erected, notably a fine auditorium and new dor- 
mitory, while the grounds have been enlarged and 
beautified. Through his efficient management and 
the generosity of Dr. W. S. Woods, of Kansas City, 
whose name it now bears, a large number of girls are 
educated gratuitously each year. Daughters of mis- 
sionaries are educated here, and several William 
Woods College alumnae are now in foreign fields as 

Much of the success in his chosen work he attrib- 
utes to his early training under Moravian influ- 








^j^% ETHANIA, from its very first inception, had 
IJfi a cu ff crent individuality from any other Mora- 
'^ vian settlement in Wachovia. Count Zinzen- 
dorf is said to have remarked that he feared it was 
the entering wedge, that would end in doing away 
with Moravian exclusiveness. 

During the troubled times of the Indian wars, a 
number of people had refugeed to Bethabara, around 
the mill, where palisades had been put up, as a pro- 
tection. One of our immediate ancestors fled from 
an Indian outbreak on New River with an infant of 
two days in arms, and, with her friends, arrived in 
Bethabara on foot. 

These refugees were not favorably inclined towards 
the common house-keeping, or choir arrangements at 
Bethabara, its communism. It was with the idea of 
accommodating them, that Bishop Spangenberg and 
several others selected the locality of Bethania, where 
friends of the church, as well as members, could be 
allowed to locate themselves. On Tuesday, June 
12, 1759, Spangenberg, his wife, and Bishop Seidel, 
Jacob Lash, and Renter, the surveyor, repaired to 
the Black Walnut Bottom, 3 miles north of Be- 
thabara, and there agreed upon the site of Bethania. 
A survey was made in the centre of which there was 
to be a square, 280 feet by 165 containing the church, 
and other public buildings. This square was, how- 
ever, discontinued, because cattle were grazed there, 


and it became later, unsafe for the children. Twelve 
lots were laid out above, and 12 below the square. 
The upper lots were to be given to friends of the 
church, not as yet, full members, but the lower ones 
should be given only to genuine, true-blue Mora- 
vians, — charter members as it were. In conse- 
quence of this arrangement, the lower lots were 
again divided, so as to form 18, instead of 12 — and 
they are smaller to this day. They set apart, for 
each lot, a proportionate quantity of bottom and up- 
land, so that each lot was equally valuable. Some 2000 
acres were set apart for the use of the congregation. 

The 8 married couples who settled in the lower part 
of town were Godfrey Grabs, Balthasar Hege, Chris- 
tian Opiz, Christopher Schmidt, John Beroth, Adam 
Kramer, Michael Rank, and Henry Bieffel. They 
formed the nucleus of the new settlement. They 
began to fell trees July 10, 1759; on the 15th the lots 
were distributed by lot, and on the 18th Grabs, with 
his wife and little son William, occupied the first 

A contract was entered into with the following 
friends and neighbors, who according to their re- 
quest, should be allowed to occupy the lots above the 
church, they were Michael Spoenhour, John Strub, 
Philip Shaus, and the widower Frederick Shore, and 
his son Henry. Renter, the surveyor, was, at once, 
sent to lay out a road to the Bethabara mill. The 
next day Seidel, the minister, Jacob Lash, and eight 
others started early from Bethabara, and got 
lost, but finally, after much halloing, they were 
set right again. The German names of both 
Bethabara and Bethania proving too hard to pro- 
nounce, by English speaking friends, Bethabara 
was soon called by them "the ( )ld Town," while 
Bethania became the New Town. The name "Sa- 


lem" later was more readily pronounced, and there- 
fore retained its original form. 

The main street of Bethania was laid out, 66 feet 
wide ; cross streets or lanes were laid out, at regular 
intervals, 3 on each side. The Bethabara friends were 
to work on the houses, while the Bethania citizens 
were to prepare the ground for cultivation. During 
these first days, the terrible epidemic of typhus fever 
came to Bethabara, and 12 new-made graves on the 
hill side, of their best men and women, made a great 
gap in the heroic little band. Seidel the minister, 
who was at Bethania, assisting wherever he could, 
was called home to Bethabara by the illness of his 
wife, who died in a few days, and the devoted hus- 
band died very soon thereafter. Kalberlahn, the 
skillful physician also departed. Truly, "God buries 
his workmen, but his work goes on." 

By April, 1760, ten houses had been built in Be- 
thania, and occupied, and the first meeting-house was 
consecrated, on the south-west corner of the square, 
where Oehman's cooper-shop stood. This church 
was a small frame structure used till 1771 when the 
second floor of the so-called Congregation House 
was consecrated as the second place of worship, while 
the minister's family occupied the first floor. The 
third and last real church, this one, was dedicated in 
1809, one hundred years ago. 

A graveyard was laid out, on the hill, east of the 
square, and on April 23, 1760, the first funeral took 
place, the infant daughter of George Hauser, the first 
seed thus sown in a spot where so many dear ones 
have been laid, since that time. Bishop Spangen- 
berg, on bended knees offered a fervent dedicatory 
prayer. Spangenberg was a great man. A noted 
authority stated, that the three greatest Moravians 
after Zinzendorf were Comenius, the model educator, 


Zeisberger the model missionary, and Spangenberg 
the model administrator. The first child baptized was 
John Shore, son of Henry and Barbara Shore, June 
22, 1760, by Brother Ettwein, in a public service. 

The first place of worship proving too small, the 
laying of the cornerstone of the second, or Congre- 
gation House took place on Monday, March 19, 
1770. Bethren and friends from Bethabara, Salem, and 
vicinity, together with members and friends of the 
congregation, more than 300, assembled to witness 
the solemnity. The old meeting-house being too small 
they moved into the garden in front of where the 
new house was to stand, and the services began at 
11 o'clock. Brother Marshall read the inscription to 
be placed in the cornerstone. 

"In the year of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, 
1770, in the 10th year of the reign of our most gra- 
cious king, George 3rd, King of Great Britain, on 
the 19th day of March in the name of the Holy and 
ever glorious Trinity, the cornerstone of this Con- 
gregation House was laid. The Moravian village of 
Bethania was begun eleven years ago, in the dis- 
trict called Wachovia, which the Brethren had just 
begun to occupy. It was during the Indian war, but 
still, by the gracious favor of our Lord the number 
of adults and children of the congregation as well as 
of neighbors agreeing with the doctrines taught by 
the brethren did increase so much, that the building 
used as a meeting house being too small, this corner- 
stone was solemnly laid. The texts for the day were 
given, then followed the names of all the ministers 
in Wachovia, and all the members and children of 
the congregation in and around Bethania. May the 
Lord and His spirit come to dwell here. As Be- 
thania was commenced that it might be dedicated to 
the Lord, so may he cause this house to prove a 


blessing to old and young', to become a beacon light 
directing many souls to the knowledge of God, and 
be gathered into the bundle of God's elect." 

This description was put into a leaden box and 
firmly soldered by Brother Valentin Beck. The as- 
sembly then moved in procession to the spot selected 
for the new building, when they formed a circle, the 
children in the centre. After singing, Melchoir Rasp, 
assisted by the Master Mason adjusted the corner- 
stone in the front corner north, and put the box into 
the opening prepared for it in the stone. Bro. Graff 
placed another stone on it, and stepping thereon, of- 
fered a fervent prayer, closing with the benediction. 

After a short interval all assembled again in the 
garden to celebrate a love-feast of bread and wine 
mixed with water. It was a happy meeting, making 
a pleasing impression on all that were present. Un- 
til the year 185 1 the annual Church Festival was 
held on the Sunday nearest this day March 19, when 
on account of unpleasant weather so often prevailing 
so early in the year, it was transferred to the Sunday 
nearest to June 12. On Sunday, June 23, 1771, this 
second meeting-house was solemnly dedicated to the 
service of Almighty God. 

The new house was built on high ground, almost 
directly opposite to the old one, which stood in a 
low place, and being built without proper foundation, 
so much loose earth had been washed towards it, 
by every rain, that it had risen above the threshold ; 
necessarily, the dwelling room, and adjoining prayer 
hall were sunk so deep into the ground as to be un- 
fit for use. At length, after a year and a half, the 
new building was completed. This length of time 
required, was a matter of course, because the mem- 
bers had done almost all the work with their own 
hands, having only a few pounds sterling at their 


command, as might have been expected of a congre- 
gation mostly of poor people. 

The consecration services were largely attended 
by members of the conference, friends and members 
from Salem and Bethabara, many having assisted 
in the building of the house with their own hands. 
These all met at 9 o'clock in front of the old meet- 
ing-house, and moved in procession to the second 
story of the New House to have their first meeting 
in the new prayer hall. They were accompanied by 
musicians, and after a short address, all bowed the 
knee, and Brother Graff offered up a prayer. The 
next meeting was preaching, preceded by the Litany. 
At 1 p. m., the love feast was held, 220 being pres- 
ent. During the afternoon Bro. Marshall kept a 
meeting for the children in the room intended as a 
school room. The festival meetings closed with the 
Holy Communion. 

In 1760 David Bishop and his wife moved to Be- 
thania from Bethabara to attend to the daily meet- 
ings, but the preaching of the word, and the sacra- 
ments were for several years, attended to by breth- 
ren from Bethabara, such as Backhoff, Ettwein, 
Ernst, Graff, Wolle and Tiersch. Bishop died in 
Bethabara 1763 aged 60 years. In the latter half 
of 1773, the Bethania congregation was regularly 
organized ; a committee took the Salem Statutes, as 
a guide, and formulated a constitution for themsel- 
ves. On Oct 17, 1773, Bro. Ernst and his wife 
were regularly ordained to keep all the festival ser- 
vices and sacraments, laid down in the text book. 

This Congregation House faced South, the gable 
ends being East and West ; the entrance door, oppo- 
site Mr. Grabs' former residence was at the south- 
west corner, a small roof protecting it. As you en- 
tered, you came into a short hall where one flight 


of stairs led up the south side, by which the brethren 
went up into a similar hall, and thence into the 
prayer hall, which occupied the whole second floor 
except two small rooms on the east side, one a guest 
room, the other a school room. 

A similar flight of stairs on the north side led to 
the women's side of the prayer hall. A large tile 
stove stood between the two doors ; these, and all 
the other doors had long wooden latches. In the 
lower hall hung a rope, by which the bell was rung. 
This bell was brought to Bethania in 1763, and hung 
in a small turret on the building. It was later used 
on the school house, and it now remains a valued 
relic of by-gone days to be treasured along with the 
first chair used by the minister, etc. 

The pastor's part of the Congregation House must 
have been rather circumscribed. There were two 
large rooms to the right of the entrance hall, and a 
kitchen in the rear. This building served as a sec- 
ond place of worship from 1771 to 1809, when our 
present church was built. It served as a parsonage 
till 185 1, when it was torn down, and the present par- 
sonage built. While this last parsonage was being 
built, Rev. M. E. Grunert with his young w T ife, lived 
in the so-called yellow house ; this was built for Rev. 
Mr. Kluge who came as assistant to Rev. C. T. Pfohl, 
St., who became unable to do full service from 181 3- 
1819. This house stood near where Mr. Rufus 
Transou's house stands. A house for the fire engine 
occupied the north-east corner of the lot. 

On October 22, 1806, the cornerstone of our pres- 
ent church was laid, as the old meeting-hall was be- 
coming quite too small. Brethren and friends from 
our other congregations met in the old prayer hall 
at 10 a. m. Rain having continued for several days, 
and still not ceasing, only a few sisters could be 


present. Rev. G. Reichel opened the services by 
singing ; then in a short address he stated why the 
new building was necessary, and communicated what 
was to be inserted in the cornerstone, viz : The texts 
for the day, and "In the name of God the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost in the year of the birth of 
our Saviour i8c6, Oct. 22, in the 31st year of the In- 
dependence of the United States of America. 
Thomas Jefferson being President of the United 
States in the 53rd year of the settling of the first 
members of the church of the United Brethren in 
North America, in the 48th year since the beginning 
of Bethania, the foundation of the church for the 
use of the congregation of the United Brethren set- 
tled in and near Bethania, is laid in a solemn man- 
ner, in the presence of said congregation, and their 
children, and with the best wishes of the Brethren's 
congregations in North Carolina, in Salem, Be- 
thabara, Friedland, Hope, and of our brothers and 
sisters in Spring place, in the Cherokee country etc." 
Thereupon he read the names of the members of the 
different conferences, the bishops and ministers of 
the country congregations, and of the members and 
children of this congregation. 

All of these documents together with a Liturgy 
Book being put into a brass box, it was placed upon 
the minister's table, and soldered, during the singing. 
Then, all who could conveniently do so, formed in or- 
der, and proceeded to the spot where the building 
was to be put up. Rev. G. Reichel headed the pro- 
cession with Benzien, Peter, and Pfohl, the latter 
carrying the box. Then followed the Salem Confer- 
ence, the brethren and boys. Owing to the copious 
rain, which had made the corner very muddy and 
slifc^perv the sisters remained in the ,old building where 
tnW could all hear, and many could see the proceed- 


ings. The church band rendered the scene more 
solemn by playing chorals. 

After singing, Rev. G. Reichel said: "In the name 
of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, we now 
lay the cornerstone of a meeting house to be built on 
this spot. While putting the box which Rev. C. Pfohl 
handed him into the place cut in a large stone, and 
lying at the south-west corner, he added, "May the 
Saviour's blood and righteousness be the glory of 
this house." During the singing which followed, 
Benzien, Peter, Pfohl, and John Christian Lash cov- 
ered the cornerstone with another stone, which was 
fastened by the master mason, — Abraham Lash, 
Reichel, and each of the four brethren mentioned, 
struck the stone three times with the hammer. Then, 
Rev. G. Reichel, stepping on the stone offered up a 
fervent prayer. After singing the doxology, the 
solemn services were concluded. 

On March 19, 1809 the church was consecrated. 
The Conference, and many friends came, so that the 
new church was crowded. Bro. Reichel held Ger- 
man preaching in the morning at 10 o'clock; at 1 
o'clock Bro. Benzien preached in English, and at 8 
o'clock p. m., the congregation and friends met with 
Rev. Simon Peter. The next day, March 20, 1809 
the congregation and friends met to celebrate their 
jubilee, the 50th anniversary of the place. By the 
tender mercy of our God, their children's children 
met in the same place on March 20th, 1909^0 begin 
the celebration of their Sesqui-Centennial, 100 years 
having been added to the 50. 

In their jubilee, in 1809, Reichel held the festival 
service. After that Bro. Benzien held a meeting in 
which the sister Catherine Spoenhour and the girl 
Rebecca Spoenhour were received into the congrega- 
tion. In the afternoon, at 2 o'clock a love feast was 


held by Bro. Reichel. Afterwards, a service for the 
communicants by Bro. Benzien, where they partook 
of the cup of covenant (Kelch.) At night, the ser- 
vices closed with Liturgy No. 9. 

The century from 1809 to 1909 lies before us, with 
its varied experiences of joy and sorrow. During 
the first 50 years, the fathers had to contend with 
Indian outbreaks, with the Revolutionary War, dur- 
ing which among other hardships and troubles, an 
army of 7,000 British Regulars, under Lord Corn- 
wallis, coming by way of the Shallow Ford on Feb- 
ruary 9th, 1 78 1, spent the night in Bethania, Corn- 
wallis and his staff occupying the house now owned 
by Prof. A. I. Butner, earlier known as Henry or 
(Saddler) Hauser's. Devastation and destruction, of 
course, followed, 23 fine horses were carried off, the 
pastor Ernst, being strictly held as a hostage till 
they were forthcoming. Martin Hauser, from 
Munpolgard, Switzerland, with his two married 
sons, was among the first settlers of the upper part 
of Bethania. George Hauser lived in the house now 
occupied by Prof. A. I. Butner and was the inn-keep- 
er of the village when Cornwallis and his army pass- 
ed through. As the British left Bethania, driving 
before them everything that could walk but people, 
a horse they had taken came galloping back rider- 
less with bridle and saddle upon it. Annie Hauser, 
daughter of George Hauser, seeing the horse, ran 
into the street, caught the animal, unbuckled the 
saddle and carried it in doors and hid it, and led 
the horse into the stable through a side lot as 
quickly and quietly as possible for fear some soldiers 
might then be searching for it. She no doubt en- 
joyed the capture that her bravery had regained for 
it was her father's own horse. Every live creature 
fit for food, that could be found, was killed, and of- 


ten thrown aside, wasted. One of our old people 
told how she and her companions in walking- out 
next morning, saw wagon loads of beef just killed, 
and wantonly thrown aside. The older women were 
kept busy all night, baking and cooking for the 
soldiers, who sometimes snatched the bread half- 
baked from the large ovens. Mrs. Strub going 
across the street to her father's, on her return, 
found her house turned into a hospital, filled with 
straw, and occupied by as many wounded soldiers 
as could be piled in. Fires were built all around 
barns, and everywhere, and but for the rain that fell, 
general destruction might have ensued. All the 
young women and children were gathered in the 
prayer hall of the parsonage, for safety, and they 
were protected, by the same faithful God who pro- 
tected their children, during our late Civil War, when 
Gen. Stoneman's Brigade, passed through Bethania 
on that memorable Monday night of April 10, 1865, 
just as its people were coming out of their usual 
Easter meeting. Gen. Stoneman himself spent the 
night at Mr. Elias Schanb's, just next door to the 
place where Cornwallis had lodged 84 years before. 
The Union soldiers acted, not one whit better than 
the British had done ; every house, except Mr. 
Schanb's was entered and ransacked, and nearly 
every horse taken. When our astonished and alarm- 
ed people came out of church, the whole street, 
from side to side, was filled with a surging mass of 
men and horses. They did not camp here, but went 
out to the Shallow Ford, piloted by an old colored 


Wherever a Moravian settlement was founded, a 
place of worship followed, as a matter of course, and 


under its shadow, just as naturally, a school house 
was built. The minister was the social, educational 
as well as religious autocrat of all such places. 
Wherever a boy showed any desire for improvement, 
the minister found some way. In this way Eugene 
C. Lehman, I. G. Lash and others took lessons in 
music from Rev. Peter Wolle, a musical genius of 
high culture. In 1825 as lads of 15 years old, they 
began to play the organ by turns. 

Before 1820 the minister or his assistant probablv 
did all the school teaching that was done. Then, a 
man named Peter Yarrell taught there ; about 1830 
came Benjamin Oppelt, who also painted in water- 
colors, made his own reward of merit cards, and 
was evidently a man of culture. When the present 
church was built, the old prayer hall became a school 
room. Mrs. Oehman who had before her marriage 
been one of the first teachers of S. F. A., taught a 
good while. After her death, teachers followed in 
rapid succession. A flourishing school was taught 
for several years under Mr. Herman Ruede, later as- 
sisted by Prof. Butner in the early fifties. Later 
teachers were Rev. Mr. Baldwin, Miss Anderson, 
Miss M. Siewers, E. A. Lehman, Mrs. Amelia Reich. 
Then, Prof. Butner taught for a series of years. In 
1897 a Pythian Plall was built with an addition for 
a public school, and now, within the last two years 
an educational revival has set in. 

A High School, in connection with the public 
school, was opened by Prof. Daniel in 1908 in the to- 
bacco factory of the Kapp estate which led to the 
purchase of the former Pythian Hall, and now, the 
High School building is a credit to the place as well 
as the intellectual centre of new life and action. 
During the second year of its existence, in June 1909, 
the enrollment of pupils reached 60 while the com- 


mon school swelled the number to nearly twice that 
amount. The late commencement showed the re- 
sults of the good work done by Prof. Daniel and his 

As to the earlier school building while the older 
parsonage was being torn away the school was car- 
ried on in the colored church which stood north east 
of town. A smaller school house was built princi- 
pally by E. C. Lehman, E. Schaub and T. B. Lash, 
where Dr. Strickland's office now stands. Later, it 
was removed to the rear, and a new building took its 
place, as before stated. 


Bethania was the pioneer in establishing Sunday 
Schools in this section. Under the fostering care 
of Rev. J. C. Jacobson, a Sunday School was begun 
there in 1833. Salem had no Sunday School till 
1849 when Rev. G. F. Bahnson first began the work 
there. In Bethania, the pastor Rev. J. C. Jacob- 
son, called a meeting of members November 24, 
1833, to consider the practicability of such a school, 
and on December 3rd the school was opened with 
25 scholars and ten teachers, 5 men and 5 women, 
who offered to attend alternately as desired. A 
Constitution was prepared and adopted, and a Board 
of Officers elected. Rev. J. C. Jacobson, President ; 
H. H. Butner, Vice-President; Isaac Lash, Secre- 
tary, and Peter Transou, Treasurer. The time was 
to be from 1 to 3 o'clock, P. M. A blue ticket was 
given for attendance, and one for every six verses 
of scripture, or three verses of a hymn recited. Five 
blue tickets were equal to a red one. At the close 
of the quarter, Reward Day came, and scholars 
could buy books with their tickets. May 30, 1834, 
the board of officers and a number of subscribers 


met to consider the beginning of a Sunday School 
Library. On June ist the Library was opened; on 
July 13, the school was opened by Rev. G. F. Bahn- 
son, successor to Rev. J. C. Jacobson as pastor. 
Reward Day, December 7, closed the first year of 
the Sunday School in Bethania. 


While Bethania was a farming community the 
great strength of its earlier settlement lay in the 
trades and small industries that were carried on. 
There was not a citizen who did not have a trade 
or special occupation, besides the farm he cultivated. 
Our forefathers were long-headed, earnest, practi- 
cal people, and we do well to consider if we are 
living up to our ancestry. 

Of course mills were a necessity in any new set- 
tlement so the Bethabara Mill (whose first miller was 
Jacob Kapp) supplied all the country round till 1783 
when the first Bethania Grist mill was begun and 
completed in 1784. It lay just north of town, and 
was later bought by Abraham Conrad, probably of 
the church, in 1822. Jonas Warner was his first 
miller. This mill was burned down by deserters in 
1865, and no vestige of it remains, save a few stones. 

Other mills followed in due course of time. It 
was supposed that the Hauser Mill, just below Be- 
thania, was one of the earliest, but it was built in 
1825 by Mr. Henry Hauser (usually termed Sad- 
dler) under church direction. His son, Benjamin, 
kept it up and at length it was discontinued by his 
son-in-law, Mr. William Leinbach in 1862. 

The Kapp mill was built by John B. Miller, first 
as a saw-mill, corn-mill and wool-carding machine, 
between 1845 an d 1848. It was sold to Mr. Thomas 


Kapp in 1852. He built the grist mill in 1855 ; it 
was closed in 1901. 

The old Lash Mill was built by Abraham Lash 
as a corn-mill. The whole mill plant was consumed 
by fire in 1879 or '80. The Lehman and Butner Roll- 
er Mill was put up in 1899 and is still in operation. 


The Lash family became prominent in Bethania 
from the marked business capacity of Jacob Lash 
who was born at Schoharie, N. Y. in 1722. His 
father, George Lash, emigrated from Germany to 
N. Y. when only 18 years old. Those early Lash's 
were Jacob, Balthasar, Herman, Adam, George, and 
six daughters. Jacob Lash was in the first com- 
pany that came to Bethabara in 1753, and at once 
became business manager of the new colony. His 
dealings with the Indians showed great tact and 
skill and he became the leader in Bethania affairs. 
In 1758 he qualified as the first Justice of the Peace 
in Wachovia. He and Bulitschek (Bolijack) built 
the Bethania organ, the pipes being brought from 
Europe, and Lash was the first organist. Later he 
went north, and died in New Jersey 1782. His three 
boys, however, came South. In correspondence 
with one of his grand-daughters, she mentioned how 
her father remembered that as a little boy of five 
years old, he sat on the organ bench beside his 
father (Jacob) when he played the organ which we 
have before us to-day. In the memorabilia of 1773 
we are told that the Salem Organ had been used 
the previous year at the Married People's Festival, 
September 7, but that in this present year, our organ 
was sufficiently near completion to be used, so that 
was probably the first time it was used. After that 
time, the organ, who played it and how much pleas- 


ure it gave, were mentioned on every festal occasion. 

Jacob's children were John Christian, John Jacob, 
Abraham, Anna Phillipena (Mrs. Moench), Susanna, 
Catherine and Elizabeth (Mrs. Shultz). John Chris- 
tian ran away and came South because his father, in 
accordance with the German custom, wanted him to 
learn a trade. The German Kaiser today makes 
every one of his six boys learn a trade. Jacob Lash 
owned 1700 acres of land in this state. By his will 
the oldest son had choice, so John Christian got a 
good start here in business. He had the first store 
in Bethania, a large plantation and slaves, and later 
the Tavern; the Tan-yard, Oil Mill, Grist and Saw 
Mills were originally the property of Abraham Lash. 
At his death John Christian bought them for his 
younger sons, I. G. and T. B. Lash. John Chris- 
tian was married three times and had three sets of 

In the early mercantile days he would send a 
four-horse covered wagon with a nail-keg of silver 
and gold in the back part ; the trusty driver, jogging 
up through Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania to 
Philadelphia, up Chestnut street, where he would get 
his load of goods, paying for them out of the nail- 
keg, and then leisurely jog back again, a six weeks 
drive to Bethania, and this load of goods would 
serve for the year. He made money too, verily, 
times have changed. 

About 1841 the cigar-making industry was added, 
and their choice cigars were known all over the 
South ; no old cigar stumps or elder leaves were 
worked in up there. Bethania has never been noted 
for anything shoddy, or make-believe. L. H. Liv- 
ingston the agent was probably the first specimen 
of the genus "Drummer," as with his colored driver 
Frank, he travelled in a commodious wagon, all over 


the States. Frank was later hanged for murder, 
but that did not impair his early efficiency, when as 
a dandified copy of his master, he was known ev- 
erywhere. With the Civil War all these industries 
went down. The younger members of the family 
started a factory here that turned out very fine wool- 
len goods in 1879 or '80, but the times were too un- 
settled for any such industry to flourish. They 
closed out in two or three years, and the machinery 
was sold to the Snow Camp Woollen Mills in Ala- 
mance County. I. G. Lash who inherited the finan- 
cial ability of his family to an extraordinary degree 
early came to Salem where he conducted the Branch 
Bank of Cape Fear until failing health closed his 
life in 1879. 


The first Post-office was established here with J. 
C. Lash at Postmaster. It remained here till about 
1853 when it was removed to Lehman's Store which 
had been opened at the lower end of town Novem- 
ber 22, 1836. The firm of Lehman and Butner con- 
sisted of H. H. Butner, his son-in-law, E. C. Leh- 
man, and later H. R. Lehman for a time. The Post- 
office has remained at this store till the present time, 
with a brief exception during the troubled times of 
the Civil War. For some little time it was kept by 
Rev. R. I. Devin and later by Mrs. Amelia Grabs, 
but it gradually gravitated back to its place at the 
lower store. 

The store of Lehman and Butner has continued in 
business at the same place, with the exception of 
a short time toward the end of the war when it was 
closed owing to the absence of the two younger pro- 
prietors, O. J. Lehman and F. A. Butner, in the army. 
Later they started anew as "O. J. Lehman and But- 


ner" also taking in J. H. Kapp about 1871 or *J2. 
His death in 1896 necessitated another change. A 
Roller Mill was also started and the store went on 
till 1908, when (). J. Lehman sold out to a Stock 
Company then formed and now being operated at 
the old stand. At one time the firm of "O. J. Leh- 
man and Butner" carried on five stores, one at 
Stony Ridge, one at Kapp's Mills, Surry County, one 
at the old Lash stand, the home store and for a time 
one at Vienna or Brookstown. A flourishing To- 
bacco Factory was also begun at the Lash store but 
later removed to the building known as "the Fac- 
tory" at the lower end of town. The factory closed 
with Mr. Kapp's death in 1896. 


The Conrads were also a prominent family in and 
around Bethania. Jacob Conrad lived about one 
and a half miles north of town where he had a store 
in early days, owned numerous slaves and was a 
noted business man. Abraham Conrad lived in Be- 
thania till later he removed, with the family of his 
daughter, Dr. and Mrs. B. Jones, to a beautiful site 
just above town beyond his mill. John Conrad lived 
on a fine plantation on the Yadkin, while the home- 
stead of Isaac Conrad, Sr. was at Vienna or Brooks- 


Various other industries were carried on, more es- 
pecially in earlier days, though it is interesting to 
note how certain families run in the same lines down 
to our days. The Kapps were the first millers, and 
so continued for years. The Transou's, Solomon 
and Joseph, carried on wagon making as did the el- 


der John Transou at the same place. The Grabs 
were blacksmiths, invaluable as were millers in a 
new country, Herman Butner as a gun-smith, car- 
ried loads of rifles and shot-guns out to West Ten- 
nessee and then selling out his stock even his wagons 
came home on horseback. The last of these wes- 
tern trips was made about 1852. The Warners and 
Oehman's were coopers, William and Henry Lehman 
tailors and shoe-makers, John Christian Lehman was 
a shoe-maker, and trained his three boys to the trade, 
but Eugene took up the mercantile business early. 
Daniel Butner was a black-smith and had a shop 
where later stood the tall smoke-stack of the Kapp 
factory. Thomas Schaub made buggies and carria- 
ges. Elias Schaub was a jeweler and silver-smith. 
The Stoltz's, Simon and his sons, coppersmiths, so 
that every one had a good trade to fall back upon. 
Cigar and snuff making were carried on by Gertrude 
Stoltz, and later by Betsy Hauser. Distilling was 
also a prominent industry. 


Roads, too, have had their part in the general trend 
of progress. The first road after the one from Be- 
thabara, which came in at the upper end of town, was 
the so-called "Old Richmond" road coming in from 
the west by Lash's store, and thence straight out to 
Bethabara through the opposite lane. When Leh- 
man's store began business at the other end of town, 
the lower road to Salem was cut out and gradually 
became the stage road to Mt. Airy, and the upper 
road was disused. 

The Fayetteville or Western Plank-Road was 
boomed about 1853 but did not prove a success. It 
was to go to Mt. Airy, 45 miles farther on, but stop- 


ped in front of Lash's store. Our fine bottoms, south 
of Bethania, were for a time mined, as the broad 
road cut diagonally right through the most fertile 
portion. Gradually the planks rotted, the road was 
not kept up, — was discontinued — and now, to look 
at the rich waving corn and luxuriant grass of these 
bottoms we would find it difficult to conceive of the 
banks of hard clay that once disfigured them. In 
our day and time we have builded better ; the good 
roads of the present are macadamized and will not 
decay as did the plank-road of fifty years ago, which 
is now replaced by the excellent macadamized road 
from Bethania to Winston-Salem. Other roads 
leading from Bethania are the so-called old Hollow 
road due north, and the Shallowford road southwest. 

Look at our iron and steel bridges, too, compared 
with the weak wooden structures of the past, washed 
away by the next freshet. With good roads, fine 
bridges, with industrial and educational development, 
our beloved Bethania is surely arising to new life 
and vigor and progress. 

We are proud of the deeds of our ancestors, but 
we dare not stop here. Fifty years ago, a good 
many of us were here to celebrate our Centennial, 
and the Jubilee of our church building. In 1859 our 
church had but then discarded its old-time reading- 
desk, and rejoiced in a white enamelled pulpit built 
by Rev. Jacob Siewers the pastor, for that occasion. 
In 1884, under the energetic leadership of J. H. Kapp, 
the interior of the church was re-modelled into its 
present condition ; the north gallery was torn out, 
the pulpit removed from the east side to its present 

The old organ is still the same. We love it as our 
fathers did. We think of those who played it in the 
past, beginning with Jacob Lash, William Grabs, Dr. 


Shuman, Mrs. Oehman, E. C. Lehman, Maria But- 
ner, Mrs. Sallie Kapp beginning- when she was twelve 
years old, and continuing till increasing family cares 
put a stop to it, Mrs. Almira Kapp, and the present 
organist Mrs. Strickland, who has played it thirty 
years, and its tones are still sweet in our ears. But 
we dare not stop here, we must do our part in the 
great onward march of Progress and show ourselves 
worthy descendants of those who toiled and prayed 
and wrought here 15c years ago. 


John David Bishop, 1760 — 1763 
L. G. Backhoff, 1761 — 1770. 
John G. Ernst, 1770 — 1784. 
Valentin Beck, 1784 — 1791. 
Simon Peter, 1791 — 1802. 
• Christ. T. Pfohl, 1802— 1823. 
J. P. Kluge, Assistant, 1813 — 1819. 
Peter Wolle, Assistant, 1819 — 1822. 
Chas. Van Vleck, 1822 — 1826. 
J. C. Jacobson, 1820 — 1834. 
G . F. Bahnson, 1834— 1838. 
Julius T. Beckler, 1838— 1844. 
F. F. Hagen, 1844 — 185 1. 
M. E. Grunert, 185 1 — 1857. 
Jacob Siewers, 1857 — J 865. 
C. L. Rights, 1865— 1873. 
E. P. Greider, 1873 — 1877. 
R. P. Leinbach, 1877 — 1892. 

E. S. Crosland, 1892 — 1901. 

F. W. Grabs, 1901 






^Li T is a great pleasure to be able to be present 
njl with yon on this memorial occasion and to have 
^-^ part in these exercises. In fact, I am not so 
sure, but that my interest in this event is as great 
if not greater than that of any other person present. 
When mention was first made of the approaching 
celebration I felt an interest in it, and when asked 
by Bro. Grabs to take some part, I was prepared to 
signify my willingness to do so. But since looking 
over the records of the years, in preparation for my 
part in the exercises, my interest has been greatly 
increased. I had known, of course, that my family 
history and that of Bethania were in very close touch 
with each other, but how closely it had been con- 
nected with important occasions of this kind I did 
not known until quite recently. From the list of 
pastors of this congregation as given in Clewell's 
History of Wachovia, I learned that in 1809 when 
this congregation was fifty years old my great-grand- 
father, on my father's side, the Rev. Christian 
Thomas Pfohl, was the pastor of this congregation 
and as such had charge of the exercises incident to 
that occasion. Again fifty years later, when in 1859 
the congregation observed its one-hundredth anni- 
versary, my grand-father on my mother's side, Rev. 
Jacob Siewers, was the pastor of the congregation 
and of course took part in the centennial celebra- 
tion. It is but natural then, after another fiftv vears 
has gone by, that I, the only descendant of these two 


former pastors of the Bethania congregation in the 
ministry of the church, should be interested in tak- 
ing part in the exercises of this Sesqui-Centennial 

Whether it is due to inheritance through both 
branches of my family or to the influence of this hour, 
I cannot say, but I feel that I have somehow caught 
or been caught by the spirit of the place and occasion, 
and am in full sympathy with you in this important 
celebration. I feel that you do well to celebrate the 
event. It is well to call back the sons and daugh- 
ters who have been led to make their homes else- 
where, that they may mingle together as in earlier 
days, renew their friendship, strengthen the ties which 
bind them together, and come under the healthful 
influence of the old home again. It is fitting, too, 
to pause in the midst of our busy life to think 
of those who lived and wrought for the upbuilding 
of this community but who have long ago rested 
from their toil and whose ashes lie on yonder hill, 
and to pay tribute to their memory. And you will 
find it helpful, I'm sure, to take an inventory, as it 
were, of your resources, see what has been accom- 
plished, whither you are tending and how you may 
wisely and successfully continue the work which has 
ii]) to this time been so well done. 

One hundred and fifty years! How shall we view 
it? As a long or short period of time? Measured 
in the light of eternity it is very, very short, scarcely 
a breath. But viewed from the standpoint from 
which earthly things are viewed it is a very con- 
siderable space of time. I had thought of the hun- 
dred and fifty years of life here, but had not realized 
how long a period it was, until I held in my hand 
the little card announcing these execises, at the top 


of which I saw side by side the two dates 1 759-1909. 
With the latter date I was familiar enough, but the 
former appeared very unfamiliar. "1759!" Away 
back in the middle of the 18th century. What of it? 
I asked myself. I was bewildered. Rip Van Winkle 
was not more so when he found himself in the 
midst of strangely new scenes, than I, as I tried 
to make my way back through the scenes and events 
of which I had heard and read to the time when 
Spangenberg, Seidel and Lash on June 12, 1759 made 
their way from Bethabara to the sloping hillside 
north of the Black Walnut Bottom and decided on 
the exact location of the settlement to which they 
gave the name Bethania. 

In my journey through the years my own experi- 
ence was of small moment, for my earliest recollec- 
tions led me not even a fifth part of the way. So I 
searched among the memory records for information 
gained from parents and grandparents. I recalled 
having heard of weekly visits paid by a young book- 
keeper of Salem to the daughter of a former pastor, 
who though a teacher in the Salem Female Academy, 
spent her vacations at the Bethania parsonage. But 
I found that those days when my father was wooing 
the Bethania pastor's daughter led me back no 
farther than the early sixties of the 19th century. 1 
was still more than 100 years from the beginning. 
Once more I sought within my family history to see 
if I could find out how long it had really been since 
the beginning of Bethania. I went back to the time 
of my great-grandfather — four generations back — 
and found that five pastors had served the congrega- 
tion before his time and that I was still in the 19th 
century. Back to the time of my great-grandfather 
and still fifty years from the beginning! Bethania 


was in my estimation becoming hoary with age. All 
family connections having failed me, I turned to the 
dates of important events in our country's history 
which I had stored in memory's vaults. 1789 — the 
year of the organization of the government of the 
United States with Geo. Washington as its first 
president — but I found that Bethania was already 
30 years of age at that time. 1775 — when the brave 
sons of Mecklenburg county sent forth their famous 
Declaration of Independence. But I found that then 
already the work in Bethania was firmly planted and 
that one of the most authentic records of this im- 
portant event was found in the diary of this con- 
gregation. Once more I searched and the years 
1754 to 1763 stood before me. With them I had al- 
ways associated the French and Indian war, when 
British and French were struggling for the mastery 
of the new world and determining whether the influ- 
ence of French or English should predominate in the 
colonies. And there in the very middle of that strug- 
gle with which there had always been associated in 
my mind the adventures of the young surveyor Wash- 
ington and the awful atrocites of the Indians — in that 
period, when as yet there was no thought of inde- 
pendence of the mother country, when the need of 
the union of the colonies was just beginning to make 
itself felt, when as yet not one single important 
event had taken place looking to the formation of 
the American Union — Bethania's foundation was 

How far off the beginning appears to us now ! 
How many the events which have crowded into the 
years since that time ! How important the items of 
news which from time to time reached the ears of 
the villagers here. At the village store, the men, and 


in the home around the quilting frame, the women, 
discussed such items of news as the battle of Bunker 
Hill and the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. Of all 
the exciting events connected with the Revolution, 
the happenings incident to the formation of our gov- 
ernment and of the growth and development of our 
great country, this settlement has been an interested 
witness and in many of them she has played her lit- 
tle part. 

But you ask me, what of the place itself? What 
of the life here during these one hundred and fifty 
years ? What is there to show for the toil and strug- 
gle of those who have lived and wrought here? 
What have they accomplished? How have they 
builded ? 

These are questions in which all are interested. 
Of these things many of you have been thinking as 
your thoughts turned towards this Sesqui-Centennial 
celebration. How shall they be answered? 

The true measure of things is never to be sought 
for in times of quantity but quality. It is not the 
extent of costly possessions or the vastness of busi- 
ness enterprises that counts for most, but character 
and influence. This we are accustomed to reckon 
true of individuals. It is none the less true of com- 
munities. Of all things, character alone is enduring, 
it remains when all else has perished. Though ma- 
terial prosperity is not to be despised, yet it is by no 
means the highest good, and the worth of a com- 
munity to the State and to the world is not dependent 
primarily on its wealth or its industry, but upon its 
character and influence. That a community as well 
as an individual has character there is scarcelv need 
to state. Neither need we waste words in declaring 
that the character of a community is very powerful 


and influences for good or ill not only the citizens 
of the community as such, but the county, the State 
and even the nation. 

Of this community around which our interest is 
centered today, it may be said that in the progress 
of these 150 years it has developed a strong and well 
defined character, a character well known by all who 
have come into contact with its life and which has 
given it an influence for good wherever it is known. 

In determining the character of this community two 
important factors have been at work — the one from 
without, the other from within — the one almost 
wholly material, the other spiritual. 

The influence from without has come from the 
peculiar position of the community in relation to the 
great trade centers and the principle avenues of 
trade, to its location and its natural envions. 
These things have determined the occupations of the 
people, their habits of life, and, to a very large extent, 
they have been responsible for the lack of any great 
industrial development. Then it must always be 
borne in mind that the purpose of those who planned 
and for many years directed the life of this place, was 
not to make of it any large center of activity. They 
threw their influence and strongest efforts in the 
direction of the settlement founded a few years 
later at Salem, and it was never their intention that 
Bethania should be other than a small settlement. 
It may easily be seen too, how this fact has called 
away, from time to time, young people of strength 
and ability who have gone to build up other places 
and has thus taken from the home community much 
of vigor and young strength. In this respect I know 
of few communities which have suffered to the same 
extent as Bethania, and vet it is to her great credit, 


and it should be to her a cause of just pride and a 
splendid testimonial to her character, that they have 
added strength and efficiency to those communities 
with which they have cast in their lot, that they have 
brought honor upon the old home that sent them 
forth, have preserved her fair name and have wit- 
nessed to the true worth of the life of this place. 

The other force that has operated to determine the 
character of the place has been the ideals of its peo- 
ple — a force always more potent in shaping charac- 
ter, whether of an individual or community, than any- 
thing else. From the ideals of the men and the wo- 
men who during a century and half have labored and 
wrought here and have builded much of their ideals 
into the life of this place, there has come the de- 
termining force which has moulded the Bethania 
character and developed the Bethania spirit. 

Do you ask me what it is? It is made up of three 

The first of these of which I shall speak is — 

I. The first settlers were industrious people — men 
of unwearied toil, who gave themselves with zeal and 
devotion to the building of a home here in the wil- 
derness of Carolina which should stand for the high- 
est and best there was in life. That they were men 
of great industry was evidenced by the extent of 
their accomplishments. Entering this unbroken 
wilderness they soon cut roads, cleared fields, erected 
dwellings, built industries, harvested crops — in fact, 
in a short space of time established here the best and 
most flourishing industrial center of their time, 
which was sought eagerly by the citizens of the coun- 
try for a hundred miles around. They were a busy, 
hard working people, who brought to their work 


earnest consecration of purpose. They were careful 
workers. They were building not for a day only. 
They were systematic in their efforts. They worked 
after plans had been well matured and not from the 
standpoint of self, but for the good of all. This prin- 
ciple of industry has been maintained. Development 
of large business centers has worked great hardships 
and has caused enterprises here to cease, has led 
many sons and daughters to go elsewhere, and yet, 
those who have gone from you and those who have 
remained have been true to the ideal of industry and 
honest toil. 

II. The second ideal is that of education or the 
training of the young. In this world of change, 
where one generation comes upon the stage of life, 
plays its part, and passes off to make room for an- 
other, there are few things more important than 
education. How else shall the life be kept from fall- 
ing to a lower level than by the training of the chil- 
dren, by instilling into them high ideals and the 
spirit of lofty endeavor. This is a principle to which 
the Moravian Church has ever sought to be true. 
And here, in Bethania, from the earliest times, the 
education of the youth has been most strongly em- 
phasized. The ideal has been for education in its 
broadest meaning — not simply the education of the 
mind — the training of the intellect — but more impor- 
tant still, the education of the heart as well. Moral 
and spiritual training have here gone hand in hand 
with the intellectual and the young have been taught 
to live as well as to know. It has made Bethania a 
community of more than ordinary intelligence and 
morality. In accordance with this ideal there has 
likewise been instilled into the young a love for the 
higher arts — those things that bring that broader 


culture uot to De gained from books alone. Here 
you find a love for music and a proficiency in the 
art not found in many rural communities ; here your 
young men have shown commendable zeal in con- 
ducting their debating clubs, and these things, with 
frequent lectures and entertainments, have given to 
your people and community a culture and polish 
which is always noticeable to the visitor and which 
has given tone and color to your life. 

The third factor of the Bethania spirit is Godli- 

III. I mention it last purely for emphasis. It 
properly belongs first, for it has been the very foun- 
dation of the life here. If one principle was more 
prominent in the life of the early settlers than any 
other, it was their godliness. They recognized their 
dependence upon God ; they implored his guidance 
and sought his aid. They were men of simple child- 
like faith, who had committed their way to Him and 
whose first purpose was to serve Him. Men who 
believed that God's favor was to be sought in secular 
as well as spiritual things. If you would catch 
something of the godliness-of those men, who in 1759 
laid here the beginning of this work, you would be 
greatly aided by the record given in the History of 
Wachovia. There we read that on July 12, 1859, the 
little company of brethren gathered on the spot 
where the Grab's house, the first house in Bethania, 
was to be erected, and there the morning prayers 
were conducted and there they prayed that those 
who would reside in the house, as well as the future 
inhabitants of the town, might be blessed. Continu- 
ing we are told that the diary adds — "The service 
drew us very near to each other in the tie of brother- 
ly love." Such was the spirit of the men of that far 


off day. Whatever else they may or may not have 
been, of this we are sure, they were godly. 

Their motive was not a selfish one that brought 
them as Pioneers of civilization into these Carolina 
wilds. They came because the church wanted them 
to come ; they came under the direction and authori- 
ty of the church, believing that in obeying the church 
they were obeying God. They came to their work 
of cutting roads, of erecting houses, of tilling fields, 
in exactly the same spirit that the pastor goes to his 
new field of labor or the missionary to his distant 
home. They brought to their work the same con- 
secration and the same holy purpose. They were 
laymen called of God to labor for Him. 

It was this spirit that brought it about that from 
the beginning this community began to witness for 
God. It was for His glory that they laid their 
foundation here and sought to build thereon, and, 
than, this, I know of no higher motive than can 
actuate men. In so doing they were carrying out 
the supreme purpose of God with man. 

If to me it has been given to understand God's 
purpose with man and his desire for the world, it is, 
that, throughout the length and breadth of the earth, 
wherever man dwells, he may witness for Him, 
that he may cause it to be known that there is a 
God in heaven who rules over the affairs of men and 
desires them to live in obedience to His commands 
and to seek to carry out his purpose. 

That here, in this little corner of the world, the 
corner into which God led them to make their home, 
our forefathers sought to carry out this great pur- 
pose of God, is that which today should furnish the 
chief joy of this anniversary occasion. 

That, in the beginning, Bethania was as a light in 


the wilderness shining for God, that, today, her citi- 
zens are still seeking to be loyal to Him and are en- 
deavoring to celebrate this occasion in a spirit of wor- 
ship and devotion to Him, is your chief glory. Than 
this there is no greater privilege, there is no higher 
honor. This must ever be the crowning glory as it 
should be the chief end of every community's life. 

It is in my heart today to wish for you, the citizens 
of this community, and for old Bethania, many years 
of opportunity and service. I would have them be 
years of earnest toil, of zealous striving, of noble 
endeavor, of glorious attainment. But if they are 
to be such, you must be true to the great ideals of 
your fathers. You must build upon the foundation 
of faith in God. You must seek ever to witness for 
Him. You must be most careful and faithful in the 
training of the youth. You must be most diligent in 
your toil and labor. Then will the blessing of God, 
for which, on the first day of the life here, the fore- 
fathers prayed, abide with you always. 



ATURDAY, the first day of the anniversary 
services, opened with a bright sky. In due time 
the people began to arrive from different parts 
of the Province and surrounding country and contin- 
ued to come until we had a large congregation. 

About half an hour before the opening the church 
band announced the happy occasion by playing 
chorals on the steeple. 

Some time after ten o'clock the services began 
with the congregation rising and singing, "Now let 
us praise the Lord," after which the choir sang, "I 
Will Extol." Rev. J. F. McCuiston, pastor of 
Christ Church, Salem, led in a responsive reading, 
and read Psalm 90. 

Rev. E. C. Stempel, pastor of East Salem and 
Centerville, led in prayer and read the greetings 
from the Mission Board in Berthelsdorf. Rev. 
James E. Hall, pastor of the congregation, and prin- 
cipal of the school, at Clemmons, gave greetings for 
the Province. 

Rev. J. K. Pfohl, pastor of Salem Home congre- 
gation, delivered the Sesqui-Centennial address, 
which was followed by an anthem by the choir, 
"Awake My Soul." 

The close of the service consisted of the presen- 
tation of the Lash Window and other memorials. 
Two little girls, of the youngest descendants of John 
Christian Lash, unveiled the window put in to his 
memory by members of the family. Other Sesqui- 
Centennial memorials, as announced by the pastor, 
were: A painting in the arcli behind the pulpit, put 


in for a former pastor Rev. E. P. Greider, by his 
widow, Mrs. Sarah Greider, and daughter, Mrs. E. 
M. Lehman ; pnpit pedestals, by Mr. E. T. Kapp ; 
pulpit chairs in memory of the late J. H. Kapp, by 
members of his family ; chair for communion table, 
by infant classes of Bethania Sunday School; pulpit 
Bible, by Miss E. A. Lehman ; Bible book mark by 
Mrs. E. S. Crosland in memory of her son, Shober, 
who was born in Bethania ; carpet and jardinieres, 
by Young Ladies' Bible Class and Young Men's 
Bible Class of Bethania Sunday School; window 
transoms for ventilation, by Ladies' Missionary So- 
ciety ; Sunday School piano purchased by united ef- 
forts and contributions of people in, and outside of 
Bethania ; concrete walk on church pavement, the 
fund started by Mrs. E. M. Lehman's Sunday 
School class and completed by contributions from 
friends, in Bethania and Salem ; also painting on ex- 
terior of parsonage and church, and graveyard fence. 
Rev. E. S. Crosland, pastor of Calvary Church, 
Winston, offered the dedicatory prayer. 

After the closing hymn, "O Lord of heaven, and 
earth, and sea !" Bro. Hall pronounced the bene- 
diction. — 


The playing by the band in front of the church 
was followed by the Sunday School Mass-Meeting, 
in which Bethania, Olivet, Alpha, and Mizpah 
schools had a reserved place in the middle row of 
seats. Bro. Crosland, the only surviving former 
pastor, presided. The Sunday School piano led the 
singing. Hymns familiar to everybody were used. 

The hymn, "Come thou fount of every blessing!" 
and a responsive reading for leader, schools, and 


congregation formed the opening. Bro. Pfohl of- 
fered the opening prayer. 

A historical sketch of the four Sunday Schools 
of the congregation was read by the pastor, F. W. 
Grabs. Mr. E. A. Ebert, president of Forsyth 
County Sunday School Association, brought greet- 
ings from the county. 

Addresses were delivered by Bro. McCuiston and 
Col. F. H. Fries. 

After the closing prayer by Bro. Crosland, "Blest 
be the tie that binds" was sung before the benedic- 


Promptly at seven o'clock a large congregation 
assembled behind the church as the band played 
Tune 159A and joined in singing to the same tune, 
"All hail ! thy church's Saviour dear." 

We then proceeded to the grave yard to hold the 
service similar to the one held fifty years ago at 

When the people had arranged themselves on the 
sacred burial ground, illuminated with electric lights 
provided especially for our anniversary celebration, 
two hymns were sung: "Children of the heavenly 
king!" and "Come, let us join our friends above." 

The pastor read a brief newspaper clipping from 
1859 describing the grave yard service as held in that 

Bro. McCuiston led in prayer. 

The brethren Crosland and Stempel read the Eas- 
ter morning Litany. 

Before the close Bro. Stempel read a letter from 
Rev. George F. Bahnson, of Pennsylvania, referring 
to his father, Bishop Bahnson, who took active part 



in the graveyard service in the celebration in 1859. 

A number of hymns were sung in the service, the 
band leading. The happy and peculiarly impressive 
occasion was closed with the anthem, "Sing hallelu- 
jah, praise the Lord," after which Bro. McCuiston 
pronounced the benediction. 


The second clay opened bright as the preceding 
one. The happy Sabbath was announced by the 
band, which played in front of the church. 

The congregation was larger than on the day be- 
fore, about five hundred being present. 

"The service was opened with "Creation Hymn" 
by the choir. The pastor led in the "Te Deum 
Laudamus." Rev. H. E. Rondthaler, Principal of 
Salem Academy and College, read the lessons for 
the day and led in prayer. 

The Sesqui-Centennial sermon was preached by 
Rt. Rev. Edward Rondthaler, D. D., of Salem, 
from the text : Jesus Christ the same yesterday, 
and today, and forever — Heb. 13 :8. 

After the sermon the choir sang "Nearer My God 
to Thee," after which the pastor led in prayer. 

Greetings were read from Rev. J. H. Clewell, of 
Bethlehem, Pa., and Rt. Rev. M. W. Leibert, of New 
York City. 

After the closing hymn, "O God, our help in ages 
past," Bishop Rondthaler pronounced the benedic- 


The band announced the Historical Meeting by 
playing again in front of the church. 

The service began with "Praise God, from whom 


all. blessings flow.'' The pastor led in a responsive 
reading. "Angel Bands in Strains Sweet Sounding" 
was sung by the choir. Bishop Rondthaler offered 
the! prayer. 

The Historical Sketch of Bethania, written by 
Miss E. A. Lehman, was read by Bro. H. E. Rond- 
thaler and was heard with close attention. Miss 
Lehman herself read the Sesqui-Centennial poem 
that she had written for the occasion. 

The pastor read greetings from Rev. Jonathan 
Reinke, of the West Indies, as a representative 
from the Foreign Mission work, Rev. Walter A. 
Schmidt, of Herrnhut, as secretary of the work in 
Bohemia and Moravia, and Rev. F. E. Grnnert, of 
Stat'en Island, N. Y. 

The congregation was dismissed by Bro. H. E. 


The closing praise service, with the electric lights, 
the orchestra from Winston-Salem to lead in the 
music, and the inspiring singing by the congregation, 
was the most brilliant one of all. 

The grand old familiar church hymns were used. 
The congregation joined in the Lord's Prayer in the 
opening part. The pastor read Psalm 122. Mr. F. 
H. Lash offered the prayer. 

The closing address was delivered by Col. W. A. 

Miss Ella Lehman sang a solo, "Beautiful Home 
of Paradise" with orchestral accompaniment. 

At different times in the service greetings were 
read from Rev. C. A. Meilicke, of Grand Rapids, 
Wis.; Rev. Paul M. Greider, of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
Rev. E. S. Hagen, of Lititz, Pa.; Rev. S. H. Gapp, 


editor of "The Moravian" and Professor in Moravian 
College and Theological Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa. ; 
Rev. H. P. Mumford, of England, Editor of "Mora- 
vian Missions"; and Bishop Berkenhagen, of 
Kleinwelka, Germany. 

After the Doxology in responsive reading the ser- 
vice closed, as on the previous night, with the "Sing 
Hallelujah, Praise the Lord" anthem, after which 
the glorins Sesqui-Centennial celebration of 1909 was 
ended with the benediction by the pastor.